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Pedagogy of Suffering

Emil Constantinescu, the former president of Romania,explains the emergence of the pedagogy of suffering and its role in uniting civil society’s drive for freedom. He recounts the struggles and great suffering endured by citizens who lived under communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Constantinescu asserts that it was these trials and tribulations that galvanized the opposition to stand up to dictatorship and fight for their rights in a liberal and democratic society. He stresses that there is no single correct path for every nation; rather, each nation must work to guarantee each individual’s liberty in such a way that it does not violate the liberties of others.

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